Writing Sample

Home and Freedom:

Black-Jewish Connection and the Unsolved Murder of William Seidler


Endnotes

KEY TO ARCHIVAL CITATIONS

 

For brevity, archival collections cited in this work are represented by the following codes:

 

JCRC = Jewish Community Relations Council of Greater Philadelphia Records, SCRC 230, Special Collections Research Center. Temple University Libraries, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

 

WILPF = Women’s International League for Peace & Freedom Records, Swarthmore College Peace Collection, Swarthmore, Pennsylvania.

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1. Commissioner Joseph F. O’Neill, “Confidential: Slain Jewish Merchants 1968-1973” (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Philadelphia Police Department, April 10, 1973), n.p. Box 175, Folder 19-21 (individual folder not numbered): Slain Jewish Merchants 1968-1973 (City of Phila. Police Department), JCRC.

2. Unless noted, details in this chapter of the crime and neighborhood reaction are from Rich Sapok, “Merchant Slain in N. Phila.,” Philadelphia Daily News, March 19, 1971. Miriam discusses never returning to the store in an interview for the WILPF newsletter, identified as circa 1989 by then-WILPF staffer Deborah Zubow (Author unknown, untitled biographical sketch of Miriam Seidler for WILPF newsletter, undated, DG 043: Accessions from 2000 - 2013 (June), Part VII: U.S., Section Series A: Historical Records; Biographical information: Miriam G. Seidler, WILPF. Confirmation that the shooter was never apprehended is in O’Neill (1973) and William R. Macklin, “A Volunteer Who Doesn’t Fit the Mold,” Philadelphia Inquirer, April 30, 1998, sec. D.

3. Sandy Padwe, “My Philadelphia: Believed in People - But He Met Death,” Philadelphia Daily News, March 31, 1971, Main Edition, sec. Metropolitan Page. On racial preferences in postwar housing benefits, see Richard Rothstein, The Color of Law: A Forgotten History of How Our Government Segregated America (New York: Liveright, 2017).

4. Padwe; Associated Press, “Slain Storekeeper Eulogized by Black Panther Party Members,” Standard-Speaker, Hazelton, PA, March 30, 1971, final edition.

5. Dennis Kirkland and Edward Eisen, “Neighbors Take Up Arms After Merchant’s Death,” Philadelphia Inquirer, March 20, 1971, final City edition, sec. A.

6. Kitsi Burkhart and Alfonso Brown, Jr., “Slain Storekeeper Helped Neighborhood,” Evening Bulletin, Philadelphia, PA, March 20, 1971, “William Seidler,” George D. McDowell Philadelphia Evening Bulletin Clippings Collection, Biographical, SCRC 169A, SCRC.

7. Kirkland and Eisen, “Neighbors Take Up Arms After Merchant’s Death.” Black merchants seem to have armed themselves earlier; see Burkhart and Brown, Jr., “Slain Storekeeper Helped Neighborhood.”

8. For more on the national dimension of racialized crime reporting, see Melissa Hickman Barlow, “Race and the Problem of Crime in ‘Time’ and ‘Newsweek’ Cover Stories, 1946 to 1995,” Social Justice 25, no. 2 (1998): 149–83. Philadelphia's prime example of a white politician capitalizing off of 'law and order' discourse was police commissioner, then mayor, Frank Rizzo, discussed further in chapter nine and in Timothy J. Lombardo, Blue-Collar Conservatism: Frank Rizzo’s Philadelphia and Populist Politics (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2018).

9. Larry Fields, “It Takes More Than Guns to Kill Widow’s Ideals,” Philadelphia Daily News, March 1, 1972.

10. Charles Montgomery, “Store Owner Is Slain in North Phila. Holdup,” Evening Bulletin, Philadelphia, PA, March 19, 1971.

11. Jewish communal institutions saw conditions in North Philadelphia as so dire that by 1970, they were conducting what could almost be termed humanitarian missions, sending social workers to find the last few white Jews in the previously most concentrated Jewish residential area, Strawberry Mansion, to aid them, and subtly encourage them, to move out. Bessie K. Stensky, “The Strawberry Mansion Project on the Aged: A Report on A Reaching Out Effort by the Jewish Family Service of Philadelphia,” November 1970, Box 179, Folder 2, Jewish Community Relations Council of Greater Philadelphia Records, SCRC 230, SCRC. For more on the conditions affecting both white and Black Jews in North Philadelphia after the mid-1950s, see chapter 4.

12. Padwe, “My Philadelphia: Believed in People - But He Met Death.”

13. Kirkland and Eisen, “Neighbors Take Up Arms After Merchant’s Death.”

14. "1930 United States Census, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania, Digital Image s.v. ‘Beatrice Bullard,’" Ancestry.com. 1930 United States Federal Census [database on-line]. Lehi, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations Inc., 2002;  "Marriage License, Grant Bullard to Clara Davis," 22 December 1919, Robeson County, North Carolina. Office of Register of Deeds, Lumberton, North Carolina. Robeson County, North Carolina, North Carolina County Registers of Deeds, North Carolina State Archives, Raleigh, NC, Volume Unknown; p. 12, Microfilm. Record Group 048. Ancestry.Com. North Carolina, U.S., Marriage Records, 1741-2011 [Database on-Line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.Com Operations, Inc., 2015. "1910 United States Census, Wahee, Marion, South Carolina, Digital Image s.v. ‘Mattie Davis,’" n.d., Roll: T624_1451; Page: 2A; Enumeration District: 0075; FHL microfilm: 1375464, Ancestry.com. 1910 United States Federal Census [database on-line]. Lehi, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations Inc., 2006. "1880 United States Census, Wahee, Marion, South Carolina, Digital Image s.v. ‘Melvina Wright,’" n.d., Roll: 1235; Page: 336C; Enumeration District: 102, Ancestry.com and The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. 1880 United States Federal Census [database on-line]. Lehi, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations Inc, 2010.

15. Isabel Wilkerson, The Warmth of Other Suns: The Epic Story of America’s Great Migration, Vintage 2011 ed. (New York: Random House, 2010), 217–18; Barbara Easley-Cox, interviewed by April Rosenblum via telephone, transcript, July 26, 2019.

16. “Staid Old Philly Blows It’s Top,” Philadelphia Tribune, August 18, 1945.

17. William C. Farson, “Philadelphia Roars Salute to Victory,” Philadelphia Inquirer, August 15, 1945.

18. Farson; “Riots End Liberty for 100,000 in Navy: San Francisco Quiet Again After Battles in Streets Cause Deaths of 10,” New York Times, August 17, 1945.

19. “Staid Old Philly Blows It’s Top”; Ernest Johnson, “V-J Day Presents Special Problems,” Philadelphia Tribune, August 18, 1945.

20. Robin DG Kelley points out how slow this progress was, noting that it was not until 1944 that wartime employment opened up significantly to African American workers. Race Rebels: Culture, Politics, And The Black Working Class (Simon and Schuster, 1996), 164.

21. Johnson, “V-J Day Presents Special Problems.”

22. “Red Cross Workers To Relate Experiences,” Philadelphia Tribune, January 13, 1945, ProQuest Historical Newspapers.

23. "Marian Greenberg (Subsequently ‘Marion’), SS Volturno Passenger Manifest,” November 14, 1912, Passenger and Crew Lists of Vessels Arriving at New York (including Castle Garden and Ellis Island), 1820-1957 (Microfilm Serial T715, roll 1975, line 1, page 205); Records of the U.S. Customs Service, Record Group 36. Ancestry.com [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., 2010. Tony Michels offers some illustration of how local Jewish communities were captivated by the Russian Revolution in two works focused on New York, A Fire in Their Hearts: Yiddish Socialists in New York (Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press, 2005) and “The Russian Revolution in New York, 1917–19,” Journal of Contemporary History 52, no. 4 (October 2017): 959–79, https://doi.org/10.1177/0022009417724213. On the 1918 Philadelphia riots, see Khalil Gibran Muhammad, The Condemnation of Blackness: Race, Crime, and the Making of Modern Urban America (Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press, 2010) and Vincent P. Franklin, “The Philadelphia Race Riot of 1918,” The Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 99, no. 3 (1975): 336–50.

24. Imani Perry, May We Forever Stand: A History of the Black National Anthem, Ebook-Adobe Digital Edition (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2019), 50. The phenomenon of Yiddish-language newspapers identifying white riots against Black communities as pogroms is discussed in Hasia R. Hasia R. Diner, In the Almost Promised Land: American Jews and Blacks, 1915–1935 (Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1977).

25. On Miriam’s sisters see Sara Solovitch, “Women of Peace Who Fight Onward,” Philadelphia Inquirer, December 25, 1983, sec. A, 20; on her mother see Teresa Jaynes, “Folk Arts of Social Change: Excerpts from an Exhibition,” Works in Progress: Magazine of the Philadelphia Folklore Project, Winter 2000, 13. For examples of Yiddish lyrics comparing dark eyes to black cherries, see "Baym Oybsheyd (At Parting)," Yiddish Songs sung by Ruth Rubin (New York: Folkways Records, 1978), "Oy dortn, dortn, ibern vaser," in Ruth Rubin, Jewish Life: The Old Country (Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 2007) and "Dreyt zikh arum mayne fenster," in Elvira Grözinger et al., “Unser Rebbe, unser Stalin”: jiddische Lieder aus den St. Petersburger Sammlungen (Leipzig: Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, 2008). For the original connotation of "zaftik," as opposed to the English euphemism, see Michael Wex, Just Say Nu: Yiddish for Every Occasion (When English Just Won’t Do) (New York: St. Martin’s Publishing Group, 2007), 70-71.

26. “Just How Much Is It Safe to Reduce?,” Philadelphia Inquirer, April 25, 1926. “High School Girls Present Christmas Play (in ’News of the World Told in Pictures’),” Philadelphia Inquirer, December 23, 1926; “500 Alumnae Dine,” Philadelphia Inquirer, February 14, 1926, https://www.newspapers.com/image/173486803.

27. Miriam’s yearbook entry writers seemed confused by her nickname – they recorded it as “Money,” probably a misreading of her family pet name, the Yiddish “Monye” or Manye. “In politics,” they wrote, “it would be hard to find a more fiery suffragette,” and groped for a compliment by suggesting that perhaps she was destined to be a lawyer or politician, or “since her nickname is Money, she may yet turn out to be a real estate agent.” The Record of the Class of June, 1926 (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Philadelphia High School for Girls, 1926), n.p. Mention of Miriam’s romantic excursions are in Deborah Zubow, interviewed by April Rosenblum, Philadelphia, PA, transcript, May 25, 2019, 7. “Marian Greenberg (Subsequently ‘Marion’), SS Volturno Passenger Manifest,” November 14, 1912, Passenger and Crew Lists of Vessels Arriving at New York (including Castle Garden and Ellis Island), 1820-1957 (Microfilm Serial T715, roll 1975, line 1, page 205); Records of the U.S. Customs Service, Record Group 36. Ancestry.com [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., 2010.

28. Solovitch, “Women of Peace Who Fight Onward,” 20; Author unknown, untitled biographical sketch of Miriam Seidler for WILPF newsletter.

29. Untitled spread of photographs, Philadelphia Inquirer, October 10, 1926.

30. Author unknown, untitled biographical sketch of Miriam Seidler for WILPF newsletter; Laurie Ann Alexandre, “The John Reed Clubs: A Historical Reclamation of the Role of Revolutionary Writers in the Depression” (California State University, Northridge, 1977), 57–58.

31. “1910 United States Census, Philadelphia Ward 39, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, Digital Image s.v. ‘William Seidler,’” 1910, Roll: T624_1409; Page: 12B; Enumeration District: 0973; FHL microfilm: 1375422, Ancestry.com. 1910 United States Federal Census [database on-line]. Lehi, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations Inc.; Fields, “It Takes More Than Guns to Kill Widow’s Ideals.”

32. “New York, New York Index to Marriages, New York City Clerk’s Office, v. 3: Marriage of William Seidler and Miriam D. Greenberg, #6281, 1932; New York City Municipal Archives, Manhattan. Ancestry.Com [Database Online], Lehi, UT, USA: Ancestry.Com Operations, Inc., 2017,” accessed 5/13/19; “Public Is Invited to Girls’ Music Contest,” Bristol Daily Courier, May 28, 1932, 1, https://www.newspapers.com/image/48719218, accessed 2/4/20.

33. “Nazi End Boycott on Jews,” Sunday News, Lancaster, PA, April 2, 1933, Volume 10, Number 30, 1, https://www.newspapers.com/image/559878869, accessed 2/4/20.

34. “Touch Red,” in Judy Kaplan and Linn Shapiro, Red Diapers: Growing Up in the Communist Left (Chicago: Univ. of Illinois Press, 1998), 261.

35. The Seidlers were likely in Aberdeen by fall 1935, as Miriam attended the local junior college for at least some of the 1935-1936 school year. Associated Students of the Grays Harbor Junior College at Aberdeen, The Nautilus (Yearbook) (Aberdeen, WA: Grays Harbor Junior College, 1936), 1421, https://issuu.com/graysharbor/docs/1936, 14, 21. Bill’s work is referenced in "United States World War II Draft Registration Cards," Card for William Seidler, Serial No. 948, Local Draft Board 9, Houston, Harris County, Texas; The National Archives in St. Louis, Missouri; St. Louis, Missouri; Record Group: Records of the Selective Service System, 147; Box: 1356, Ancestry.Com. U.S. WWII Draft Cards Young Men, 1940-1947 [Database Online]. Lehi, UT, USA: Ancestry.Com Operations, Inc., 2011.,” October 16, 1940, Draft Registration Cards for Texas, 10/16/1940 - 03/31/1947, The National Archives in St. Louis, Missouri; St. Louis, Missouri; Record Group: Records of the Selective Service System, 147; Box: 1356, https://www.fold3.com/image/625362380?xid=1022 and in “News From The Boys Serving In The Armed Forces of Uncle Sam,” Lubbock Avalanche-Journal, August 8, 1943.

36. Kathleen O’Donnell, interviewed by April Rosenblum, Philadelphia, PA, transcript, July 12, 2019, 23;. Bobbie Newman, “Growing up with the Houston Symphony,” Houston Symphony (blog), January 24, 2011, https://houstonsymphony.org/growing-up-with-the-houston-symphony/.

37. Here, as in many official documents, her name was misspelled. Miriam’s own hand always recorded her given legal name as “Marion,” a spelling typical in the U.S. for boys. "Marian Seidler Petition for Naturalization (1940)," Naturalization File 5275, Texas District Court, Houston; Page 42. Ancestry.com. Texas Naturalization Records, 1852-1991 [Database online]. Lehi, UT, USA: Ancestry.Com Operations, Inc., 2012. https://search.ancestry.ca/cgi-bin/sse.dll?dbid=2509&h=900159400&indiv=try&o_vc=Record:OtherRecord&rhSource=2238, accessed 5/13/19.

38. “United States World War II Draft Registration Cards, Card for William Seidler, Serial No. 948, Local Draft Board 9, Houston, Harris County, Texas; The National Archives in St. Louis, Missouri; St. Louis, Missouri; Record Group: Records of the Selective Service System, 147; Box: 1356, Ancestry.Com. U.S. WWII Draft Cards Young Men, 1940-1947 [Database Online]. Lehi, UT, USA: Ancestry.Com Operations, Inc., 2011.,” October 16, 1940, Draft Registration Cards for Texas, 10/16/1940 - 03/31/1947, The National Archives in St. Louis, Missouri; Records of the Selective Service System, 147; Box: 1356, https://www.fold3.com/image/625362380?xid=1022.

39. Jacob Zallel Lauterbach, The Naming of Children in Jewish Folklore, Ritual and Practice (Cincinnati: CCAR, 1932), 21-22, in Omi Morgenstern Leissner, “Jewish Women’s Naming Rites and the Rights of Jewish Women,” Nashim: A Journal of Jewish Women’s Studies & Gender Issues, no. 4 (2001), 172, note 101.

40. Deborah E. Lipstadt, Beyond Belief: The American Press And The Coming Of The Holocaust, 1933- 1945 (New York: Free Press, 1993), 159–60.

41. Miriam recalled that Texas’ antisemitic atmosphere made her unwilling to remain in Texas without Bill. Kathleen O’Donnell, July 12, 2019, 23. “News From The Boys Serving In The Armed Forces of Uncle Sam.”

42. Jack Helsel, “Beatles Came, Conquered, Sang - But Not Heard,” Philadelphia Daily News, September 3, 1964.

43. Joe O’Dowd, “City Officials Ready for ‘Operation Beatle,’” Philadelphia Daily News, August 19, 1964; “Seems Everybody Loves the Beatles,” Philadelphia Daily News, August 19, 1964; “Beatles Four to Play the Hall - It’ll Be Packed from Wall to Wall,” Philadelphia Daily News, September 2, 1964.

44. Based on real estate records, telephone directories and the timing of David’s freshman year of high school, the Seidlers probably moved to Laverock in the summer of 1956. “8020 Cobden Rd, Laverock, PA,” Trulia Real Estate Search, accessed February 5, 2020, https://www.trulia.com/p/pa/laverock/8020-cobden-rd-laverock-pa-19038--2016930518; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania White Pages - Philadelphia - LIGGET through z, 1956, 1089, https://www.loc.gov/item/usteledirec08121/; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania White Pages - LITVACK through z, May 1957, 1094, https://www.loc.gov/item/usteledirec08125/; Yearbook (Wyncote, PA: Cheltenham High School, 1960), 80, https://www.classmates.com/yearbooks/Cheltenham-High-School/1000247050. Miriam mentioned her disinterest in gardening when remembering life in Laverock (Deborah Zubow, in discussion with the author, July 29th, 2019). Clothing donation was to Larry Robin (Larry Robin, interviewed by April Rosenblum, Philadelphia, PA, transcript, May 23, 2019, 41–42). Miriam mentions anti-nuclear work, specifically Women Strike for Peace, in her biographical sketch for the WILPF Newsletter. Melvin Metelits met the Seidlers through the Social Science Forum (Excerpts of Melvin Metelits, interviewed by April Rosenblum, Philadelphia, PA, transcript, July 12, 2019, 4–7).

45. Janie's entrance into the store is mentioned in Miriam's biographical sketch for the WILPF Newsletter. David as the reason for moving to Laverock is mentioned by Deborah Zubow (Deborah Zubow and Kathleen O’Donnell, interviewed by April Rosenblum, Philadelphia, PA, 29). David's graduation in 1964 is confirmed by The Quaker (Yearbook) (Greensboro, North Carolina: Guilford College, 1964), 62. https://lib.digitalnc.org/record/28188?ln=en#?c=0&m=0&s=0&cv=61&r=0&xywh=-339%2C-64%2C4012%2C2438.

46. Lenora E. Berson, Case Study of a Riot: The Philadelphia Story (Institute of Human Relations Press, American Jewish Committee, 1966), 27–39.

47. Matthew J. Countryman, Up South: Civil Rights and Black Power in Philadelphia (Philadelphia: Univ. of Pennsylvania Press, 2007), 136-141, 154-155.

48. Advance anxieties among human relations advocates about a summer 1964 riot are mentioned in Berson, Case Study of a Riot, 21. Philadelphia’s Black press watched the conflagrations occurring in other cities with a keen awareness of the earlier 20th century race riots, driven by white mobs. The Tribune printed a three-part series, with articles such as “Race Riot! The Time Bomb Haunting Large U. S. Cities: 1919 Chicago, III. Strife Began at ‘Colored’ Beach: Negro Boy Swims into Forbidden Area to Death,” August 15, 1964, p. 3.

49. Matthew Countryman discusses Moore’s plans for police precincts in Up South, 160. Moore derived grassroots credibility from this willingness to offend and he was comfortable targeting Jews for this purpose. This caused great pain and tension for white Jewish human relations advocates and resulted in censure from NAACP’s national leadership, as in 1963, when he denounced Jews as exploiters of Blacks and called white Jews engaged in Civil Rights phonies. See Murray Friedman, ed., Philadelphia Jewish Life, 1940-1985 (Philadelphia: Seth Press Inc., 1986), 155–56; Countryman, Up South, 151–52.  On Moore’s impact on the city, see Arthur C. Willis, Cecil’s City: A History of Blacks in Philadelphia, 1638-1979 (New York: Carlton Press, 1990).

50. “Vigil Supports Freedom Delegation,” CORE-LATOR (bimonthly newsletter), October 1964.

51. On Fannie Lou Hamer, see Keisha Blain's forthcoming work, Until I Am Free: Fannie Lou Hamer’s Enduring Message to America (Boston: Beacon Press, 2021). Hamer’s recollection of how she learned from Civil Rights workers in 1962 of her right to vote is reprinted in Van Gosse, “Fannie Lou Hamer,” in The Movements of the New Left, 1950–1975: A Brief History with Documents, ed. Van Gosse, The Bedford Series in History and Culture (New York: Palgrave Macmillan US, 2005), 61–62, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-137-04781-6_15.

52. “The Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party (Considerations Underlying the Development of the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party),” undated, Ella Baker papers, 1959-1965; Archives Main Stacks, SC628, Wisconsin Historical Society, https://content.wisconsinhistory.org/digital/collection/p15932coll2/id/18091.

53. “Testimony Before the Credentials Committee by Fannie Lou Hamer” (1964), http://americanradioworks.publicradio.org/features/sayitplain/flhamer.html, accessed 2/2/20, or see Hamer’s collected speeches in Maegan Parker Brooks and Davis W. Houck, The Speeches of Fannie Lou Hamer: To Tell It Like It Is (Jackson: Univ. Press of Mississippi, 2011).

54. Barbara Ransby, Ella Baker and the Black Freedom Movement: A Radical Democratic Vision (Chapel Hill: Univ. of North Carolina Press, 2005), 338–41.

55. John Lewis and Michael D’Orso, Walking with the Wind: A Memoir of the Movement (New York: Simon and Schuster, 2015), 291-292. For more of Lewis’ reflections on one such struggle between himself and Stokely Carmichael, see “Documenting the American South: Oral Histories of the American South,” Choice Reviews Online 49, no. 08 (April 1, 2012): 49-4652-49–4652, https://doi.org/10.5860/CHOICE.49-4652.

56. Barbara Easley-Cox, interviewed by April Rosenblum via telephone, transcript, July 2, 2019, 9–11; Helsel, “Beatles Came, Conquered, Sang - But Not Heard.”

57. Barbara Easley-Cox, interviewed by April Rosenblum via telephone, transcript, (July 26, 2019, p. 16) and in Philadelphia (May 19, 2019, 15–16).

58. Muhammad Ahmad, Interview with Barbara Easley-Cox, VHS (video cassette), 1991, Barbara Easley-Cox Papers, Blockson Collection.

59. Countryman, Up South, 157; Paul Levy, “Woman Clerk Is Held on Bail in Riot Charge,” Evening Bulletin, Philadelphia, PA, September 17, 1964, “Riots--Philadelphia--Miscellaneous--1964 August--Trials and Convictions--1964-66” folder.  George D. McDowell Philadelphia Evening Bulletin newspaper clipping collection, SCRC.

60. On public debates about limitations on police during the riots, see Nicole Maurantonio, “Standing By: Police Paralysis, Race, and the 1964 Philadelphia Riot,” Journalism History, January 1, 2012, 110–21.

61. Elizabeth Hinton points out that incidents like these – police abuse of Black Philadelphia youth – helped to form national crime policy under Nixon and Ford. Policymakers were influenced (or had their biases confirmed) by University of Pennsylvania criminologist Marvin Wolfgang, who studied 10,000 Philadelphia boys born in in 1945 and released his findings in 1972 as Delinquency in a Birth Cohort. Wolfgang’s conclusions, that Black and Latino youth were disproportionately criminals and recidivists, were based on a fundamental flaw: “In reality, Wolfgang’s [research] captured more the extent of police contact with black youth than a ‘pattern of criminality’; Wolfgang had labeled as ‘delinquent’ any youth who had come into contact with police for something other than a traffic violation, and the fact that African Americans were more likely to be stopped by police on ‘suspicion,’ to be assaulted verbally or physically, and to be arrested skewed the conclusions Wolfgang reached about black criminality.” From the War on Poverty to the War on Crime: The Making of Mass Incarceration in America (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 2016), 224–25. Kenneth Salaam, interviewed by Dr. Diane Turner in Philadelphia, May 9, 2011, 8–9, Charles L.  Blockson Afro-American Collection, https://digital.library.temple.edu/digital/collection/p16002coll1/id/18/.

62. Kenneth Salaam, interviewed by Dr. Diane Turner in Philadelphia, 16–17.

63. Kenneth Salaam, interviewed by Dr. Diane Turner in Philadelphia, 5–6, 11.

64. The Electrical Association of Philadelphia, “Live Better...Electrically in the Fabulous Sixties with 100-A Housepower (Advertisement),” Philadelphia Inquirer, October 10, 1960, 32; Frigidaire/J.J. Pocock, “Just What You’ve Been Waiting for to Replace Your Obsolete Refrigerator! (advertisement),” Philadelphia Inquirer, May 11, 1952, 19. https://www.newspapers.com/image/172755365, accessed 6/10/19.

65. Similar sentiments about white business practices were expressed by Black letter and opinion writers reflecting on the riot in the community’s Tribune newspaper. See J.R. Moses, “Riot’s Cause Derived From 400 Years of Slavery and Oppression,” Philadelphia Tribune, September 5, 1964; A Negro American, “N. Phila. Riots, Looting Should Be a Lesson to Dishonest Businessmen,” Philadelphia Tribune, September 5, 1964. Kenneth Salaam, interviewed by Dr. Diane Turner in Philadelphia, 13;

66. Berson, Case Study of a Riot, 42–43. Hannah Fagin, “A Long, Hot Summer: The 1964 Columbia Avenue Race Riot and the Jewish Community Relations Council of Greater Philadelphia” (Undergraduate thesis, University of Pennsylvania, 2017), 85.

Berson, Case Study of a Riot, 18. Fagin, “A Long, Hot Summer: The 1964 Columbia Avenue Race Riot and the Jewish Community Relations Council of Greater Philadelphia,” 5; Lou Scheinfeld, “Loot Victims Give Mann the Business,” Philadelphia Daily News, September 3, 1964.

67. The year before, Evans had helped to organize a local contingent to the March on Washington. Michelle Osborn, “Jewish Mother Speaks up for the Black Panthers,” Evening Bulletin, Philadelphia, PA, January 6, 1970; Berson, Case Study of a Riot, 16.; Joseph H. Trachtman and William B. Collins, “Victims of Riot Looting Boo Mann at Aid Session,” Philadelphia Inquirer, September 3, 1964.

68. Scheinfeld, “Loot Victims Give Mann the Business,” 10.

69. Scheinfeld, 10.

70. Rose DeWolf, “Beatles Thrill 13,000 Girls,” Philadelphia Inquirer, September 3, 1964. Dick Aarons and Tom Fox, “Ringo Tips His Mop to Star Police Work,” Philadelphia Daily News, September 3, 1964.